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Our Forefather, Abraham

Our forefather Abraham


first generation of Straus investors;
John D. Hough, Aetna agent in Fort Wayne
John Kryder Republican candidate for Indiana  State legislature
Abraham Lincoln Republican candidate for President

11/06/1860 Abraham Lincoln elected president


First transcontinental telegraph was completed
"Central route" of the Pony Express became the path of the first transcontinental railroad

2/09/1861 Jefferson Davis elected president of the Confederate States of America; Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Lousiana, Mississippi and South Carolina in which all U.S. land was claimed confiscate

3/04/1861 Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated
4/17/1861 Virginia and North Carolina seceded

("...May 16, 1861 issue. While these bonds had a perfectly reasonable ten year maturation, they were to become fully convertible into treasury notes in July of 1863. These notes were redeemable for coin upon demand." - U.S. Banking historical reference)


Standard Bank of British South Africa chartered

Harrison Walter Kryder, son of John Kryder III and Eliza K. Pepple, married Mary Ann Treace (alt. Trease), a full-blooded Indian chief's daughter, 01/01/1862

Ben Holladay acquired the Central Overland California line. When he disposed of his holdings the successor was Wells, Fargo & Company.

Chartered by Congress 7/01/ 1862 to build part of the first trans-continental railway, the Union Pacific Railroad was given thousands of acres of public lands, generous loan grants, rights to borrow private capital


Wells Fargo & Company delivered the government's Civil War Relief Fund

The National Banking Act of 1863 (Amendments in 1864 and 1865) was passed
First National Bank of Indiana was the eleventh in the United States organized under the new laws

National City Bank of Kentucky FDIC Certificate #: 2756 Date Established: 1/1/1863

01/01/1863 Emancipation Proclamation

01/08/1863 John P. Usher of Indiana was appointed to Lincoln's cabinet as secretary of the interior.

Fort Wayne National Bank , no. 11, was chartered in 5/22/1863, Charter signed by Hugh McCulloch, 1863 under The National Bank Act as the Fort Wayne National Bank ; opened 7/1/1863

10/03/1863 Charter of the Fort Wayne "Brotherhood of the Footboard"
beginning of labor unions in Fort Wayne


01/12/1864 Judge Samuel Hanna, of the Union Pacific Railroad, became a director of Fort Wayne National Bank
02/19/1864 Knights of Pythias founded in Washington, DC
12/12/1864 Brotherhood of the Footboard changed name to The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers


Organized January 1865- Fort Wayne National Bank

03/07/1865, Hugh McCulloch, president of the State Bank of Indiana, entered President Lincoln's cabinet as secretary of the Treasury, succeeding Salmon P. Chase

04/14/1865 Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in Washington, DC.

04/15/1865 John P. Usher of Indiana became consulting attorney for the Union Pacific Railroad.

On May 15, 1865, a wagon train carrying high ranking government officials, the personal baggage of Jefferson Davis, documents, and the remains of the Confederate Treasury, $25,000.00 in gold coin by rumor, rolled into Florida, attempting to elude federal agents, rendezvous with Davis in Texas and perhaps start over in Cuba or the Bahamas. They stopped in at Senator David Levy Yulee' s Cotton Wood Plantation in Archer, Florida where Yulee's wife informed them Jefferson Davis had been captured. Camped on the embankment of the Florida railroad the group decided to split the money and scatter. Though finally arrested and tried for treason, the officials were all pardoned and given high-ranking positions in the new federal government while the gold was never found.

August 1865 Fort Wayne National Bank succeeded The Bank of the State of Indiana.

The following biography is reprinted from

The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans: Volume VI L. Lincoln, Abraham

" LINCOLN, Abraham, sixteenth president of the United States, was born in a log cabin on the Big South Fork of Nolin Creek, three miles from Hodgensville, LaRue county, Ky., Feb. 12, 1809;

eldest son and second child of Thomas and Nancy (Hanks) Lincoln;

grandson of Abraham and Mary (Shipley) Lincoln;

great grandson of John Lincoln, who emigrated from New Jersey to Pennsylvania and thence to the wilds of western Virginia about 1758;

great2 grandson of Mordecai and Hannah Bewne (Slater) Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Scituate, Mass., in 1714 to Monmouth county, N.J., and thence to Pennsylvania;

great3 grandson of Mordecai and Sarah (Jones) Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Hingham to Scituate, Mass., about 1704, where he set up a furnace for smelting iron ore;

and great4 grandson of Samuel Lincoln, born in Norfolk county, England, in 1620, who emigrated to Salem, Mass., in 1637 and in 1640 joined his brother Thomas, who had settled in Hingham, Mass.

The Lincolns were evidently men of considerable wealth and of good social position. Thomas Lincoln, father of the President, inherited some property but was an improvident man, by trade a carpenter and accustomed to seek work from place to place. In the autumn of 1816 he removed to Indiana where his wife died Oct. 5, 1816, and he returned to Kentucky and was married secondly to Sarah (Bush) Johnston, an intelligent and industrious widow.

Abraham's attendance at school occupied hardly one year, but he improved every opportunity for acquiring knowledge. His only books were the Bible, "Æsop's Fables," "Robinson Crusoe ", "The Pilgrim's Progress," Weems's "Life of Washington" and a history of the United States.

During his boyhood and youth he acquired a local reputation as a wit. He was also a successful backwoods orator, speaking whenever opportunity offered on temperance, national politics and other topics. The Lincoln family removed to Sangamon county, Illinois, where Abraham assisted his father in building a cabin in the forest. He obtained employment as a farm hand, and in the spring of 1832 on the outbreak of the Black Hawk war he was elected captain of a company of volunteers.

On the expiration of his term of service he re-enlisted as a private and served until mustered out in June, 1832. In March, 1832, he had announced himself a candidate for representative in the state legislature and on his return from the war he began his electioneering. He was not elected, standing third on a list of eight contestants, but out of the 208 votes cast in Sangamon county he received 205.

He then engaged in the grocery business at New Salem as junior partner of the firm of Berry & Lincoln, but this venture ended disastrously within a year, and he was responsible for the indebtedness of the firm which he discharged after many years. He was postmaster at New Salem in 1833; was elected deputy surveyor of Sangamon county in January, 1834; was a Whig representative in the state legislature, 1834-42, and was instrumental in removing the state capital from Vandalia to Springfield.

He studied law, and in March, 1837, was admitted to the bar. He settled in Springfield and formed a partnership with John S. Stuart. He was a candidate on the Whig electoral ticket in 1840 and stumped the state for Harrison and Tyler. He was married Nov. 4, 1842, to Mary Todd, a native of Lexington, Ky., who was residing in Springfield with her sister, Mrs. Ninian W. Edwards.

His partnership with Mr. Stuart was dissolved in 1841, and a new partnership was formed with Stephen T. Logan, .which continued until 1843, when a connection with William H. Herndon was formed. This firm, of which Mr. Lincoln was senior partner, was dissolved by Mr. Lincoln's death.

He was a candidate on the Whig presidential electoral ticket in 1844 and spoke throughout Illinois and a part of Indiana for Clay and Frelinghuysen. He was a representative in the 30th congress, 1847-49, having been elected in 1846 over Peter Cartwright, the Democratic candidate. He canvassed the state for Taylor and Fillmore during the spring of 1848, and after the adjournment of congress, Aug. 14, 1848, he spoke in New England.

While in congress he opposed the extension of slavery, voting for the Wilmot proviso. He also drew up a bill prohibiting the bringing of slaves into the District of Columbia, the bill containing other restrictions, the measure to be decided by popular vote in the district; and his bill received some support.

After leaving congress he tried unsuccessfully to obtain the appointment of commissioner of the general land [p.426] office and declined the appointment of governor of the newly organized Territory of Oregon. He was a representative in the state legislature in the winter of 1854, but resigned in order to become a candidate before the legislature for the U.S. senate. In the Whig caucus in February, 1855, he received 45 votes on the first ballot against 41 for James Shields, the next candidate, but on the tenth ballot Lyman Trumbull was nominated.

On the organization of the Republican party in 1854 Lincoln became prominently identified with it and during the Republican national convention at Philadelphia, June 17, 1856, which nominated Frémont and Dayton, he received 110 votes as candidate for Vice-President. During the campaign he made over fifty speeches and became prominent as a leader of the new party. In 1858 he was the Republican nominee for U.S. senator to succeed Stephen A. Douglas, and on July 24 he challenged Douglas to a series of debates. The election resulted in a victory for Douglas, though Lincoln had a majority of the popular vote.

Lincoln afterward spoke at Columbus and at Cincinnati, Ohio, and on Feb. 27, 1860, he spoke in New York city being introduced by William Cullen Bryant as "an eminent citizen from the west, hitherto known to you only by reputation." He then delivered speeches in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Connecticut. His entire argument was based on the question, "Is slavery right or wrong?"

After the debates with Douglas in 1858 Lincoln was urged to seek the nomination for President, but he repeatedly discouraged the suggestion. He reconsidered the matter, however, in 1859-60, and consented to be a candidate, and the Republican state convention of Illinois instructed their delegates to vote for him. On May 16, 1860, the Republican national convention met at Chicago, where the chief candidates were William H. Seward, Abraham Lincoln, Salmon P. Chase, Simon Cameron, Edward Bates and William L. Dayton. Seward led in the first two ballots, Lincoln standing second. On the third ballot Lincoln had 231 1/2 votes to Seward's 180, 235 votes being necessary for nominaton, and before the count was announced four votes were transferred to Lincoln by a delegate from Ohio. Other delegates followed his example and Lincoln received 354 votes out of a possible 465, the nomination being made unanimous on the motion of William M. Evarts. Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was nominated for Vice-President.

Stephen A. Douglas was nominated by a wing of the Democratic party with Herschel V. Johoson for Vice-President, at Baltimore, June 18, 1860. After a spirited campaign Lincoln was elected. Nov. 6. 1860, the popular vote standing 1,866,352 for Lincoln and Hamlin, 1,375,157 for Douglas and Johnson, 847,963 for Breckinridge and Lane, 589,581 for Bell and Everett, and the electoral vote was 180 for Lincoln, 12 for Douglas, 12 for Breckinridge and 39 for Bell.

A constitution for the provisional government of the Confederate States of America was adopted at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 8, 1861, by deputies from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Lousiana, Mississippi and South Carolina. On Feb. 9, 1861, Jefferson Davis was elected President, and. Alexander H. Stephens Vice-President, and all U.S. property within the limits of the Confederacy was declared confiscate.

Major Anderson, with his small force in Fort Moultrie, on the west end of Sullivan's Island at the entrance of Charleston barber, learning the determination of the South Carolina government to possess themselves of the U.S. government property, evacuated the fort on Dec. 26, 1860, and raised the flag over Fort Sumter, constructed on a made island midway between Forts Moultrie and Johnson, and there awaited reinforcements from the national government. The South Carolina insurgents took possession of all the other forts in the harbor and manned them, at the same time building a large floating ironclad battery.

After a journey to Washington, attended with considerable personal danger, Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated March 4, 1861, and in his inaugural address he declared the union of the states to be perpetual, secession to be illegal, and his purpose "to hold, occupy and possess the property and places belonging to the government and to collect the duties and imposts." He also declared that the position of the Republican party regarding slavery was to prevent its extension, but not to interfere with the institution in states where it already lawfully existed.

On April 12, 1861, the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter and continued the bombardment until the fort was rendered untenable, and as the reinforcements and provisions sent by the Star of the West, which reached the harbor Jan. 9, 186l, failed to reach the fort, Major Anderson had no choice but to surrender, which he did April 13, 1861, and he evacuated the fort April 14. This action on the part of the South aroused great consternation in the North and political differences were largely forgotten in the desire to preserve the Union. On April 15, 1861, the [p.427] President called for 75,000 three-months volunteers and summoned congress to assemble in extra session on July 4, 1861.

On April 17, 1861, President Davis also called for 32,000 volunteers and offered "letters of marque and reprisal to owners of private armed vessels" to depredate upon U.S. commerce; on the same day Virginia seceded, and on April 19 President Lincoln proclaimed a blockade of the Confederate ports, which then included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisana, and to which were added North Carolina and Virginia April 19, and the same day the Massachusetts troops were attacked by a mob in the streets of Baltimore and two soldiers were killed.

On May 3, 1861, President Lincoln called for volunteers for three years; ordered the regular army increased, and directed the enlistment of additional seamen. On March 5, 1861, the President had sent in his nominations for his cabinet, all of which had been confirmed. Willlath H. Seward of New York was named as secretary of state; Sahoon P. Chase of Ohio secretary of the treasury; Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania secretary of war; Gideon Welles of Connecticut secretary of the navy; Caleb B. Smith of Indiana secretary of the interior; Edward Bates of Missouri attorney-general; Montgomery Blair of Maryland postmaster-general.

The following changes were made in the cabinet: Secretary Cameron resigned his portfolio to accept the position of U. S. minister to Russia, Jan. 11, 1862, and the portfolio of war was accepted by Edwin M. Stanton of Pennsylvania, Jan. 15, 1862;

W. P. Fessenden of Maine was appointed secretary of the treasury, July 1, 1864, to succeed Salmon P. Chase, made chief justice of the U.S. supreme court, and he resigned to take a seat in the U.S. senate, and was succeeded March 7, 1865, by Hugh McCulloch of Indiana;

John P. Usher of Indiana was appointed secretary of the interior, Jan. 8, 1863, to succeed Caleb B. Smith, appointed U.S. circuit judge of Indiana;

James Speed of Kentucky was appointed attorney-general Dec. 2, 1864, to succeed Edward Bates, resigned; and William Dennison of Ohio was appointed postmaster-general to succeed Montgomery Blair, who resigned at the request of the President.

During Lincoln's administrations he made the following diplomatic appointments: minister to Great Britain, Charles Francis Adams of Massachusetts;

minister to France, William L. Dayton of New Jersey, who was succeeded at his death in 1864 by John Bigelow of New York;

minister to Austria, Anson Burlingame of Massachusetts, who was not received by that government on account of his political opinions, and was succeeded by John Lothtop Motley of Massachusetts;

minister to Russia, Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky, who was succeeded by Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania in 1862;

minister to Italy, George P. Marsh of Vermont;

and minister to Spain, Carl Schurz of Wisconsin, 1861-62, who was succeeded by Gustavus Werner of Illinois, 1862-64, and H. J. Perry of New Hampshire, who served as chargé d'affaires until the appointment of John P. Hale of New Hampshire in 1865.

The President's message delivered before both houses of congress July 4 1861, went far toward reassuring the people, a large number of whom were not without uneasiness as to the ability of the President to meet the crisis. He briefly stated the condition of affairs, announced his intention of standing by the statements made in his inaugural address, and asked that congress would place at the control of the government at least 400,000 men and $400,000,000. To his request congress promptly responded by voting 500,000 men and $500,000,000.

The early operations of the Confederate and Federal armies were confined to Virginia and Missouri. The first clash of arms between the two forces was at Philippi, Va., June 3, 1861, in which the Confederates were defeated by the Federal army under Gen. G. B. McClellan.

This was followed by the Confederate victory at Big Bethel, Va., June 10, 1861, and by the Federal victories at Romney, Va., June 11, 1861, and at Boonville, Mo., June 17, 1861; the Confederate victory at Carthage, Mo., July 5, 1861, and their defeat at Rich Mountain, Va., July 11, 1861.

On July 20 the President summoned Gen. George B, McClellan from western Virginia to Washington, and on his arrival in August, 1861, assigned him to the command of the Army of the Potomac. On July 3, 1861, the President created the department of the west, placing it under command of Gen. John C. Frémont. On Aug. 31, 1861, Frémont issued a proclamation announcing that he would emancipate all slaves of those in arms against the United States. The President considered this premature and asked Frémont to withdraw the proclamation, which he declined to do, and the President annulled it in a public order, and on Nov. 21, 1861, Frémont was relieved of his command just as he had overtaken the Confederate forces at Springfield, Mo.

The battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861, resulted in a Federal defeat; the battle of Dug Spring, Mo., [p.428] Aug. 2, 1861, in a Federal victory; Wilson's Creek, Mo., Aug. 10, 1861, in a Federal defeat; Hattaras Inlet, N.C., Aug. 28-29, in a Federal victory, and Ball's Bluff, Oct. 21, in a Federal defeat. On the retirement of Gen. Winfield Scott, Oct. 31, 1861, General McClellan succeeded him as general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. The year closed with the capture of Port Royal, S.C., Nov. 7, 1861, and on the same date the indecisive battle of Belmont, Mo., between Generals Grant and Polk. On Nov. 8, 1861, Captain Wilkes, in command of the U.S. steamer San Jacinto took from the English mail steamer Trent the Confederate commissioners James M. Mason and John Slidell, and the President, by the advice of Secretary Seward and other members of his cabinet apologized to the British Government, explaining that Captain Wilkes should have brought the steamer into port as a prize, as we had always contended, instead of adjudicating the case himself at sea, and therefore gave up the commissioners.

The President issued his "General War Order No. 1," Jan. 27, 1862, in which he directed "that the 22d day of February, 1869, be the day for a general movement of the land and naval forces of the United States against the insurgent forces," and while it was not found practicable to carry his order through, it quieted the tumult in the north, where there was an almost universal demand that the Federal army should proceed at once to capture the Confederate capital, making the battle cry "On to Richmond."

The campaign of 1862 opened with the victory at Mill Springs, Ky., by the Federal forces under Gen. George H. Thomas, Jan. 19 and 20, and on Feb. 6, 1862, Fort Henry, Tenn., surrendered to Flag-Officer Foote. General Burnside, who had been placed in command of the department of North Carolina Jan. 7, 1862, won a Federal victory at Roanoke Island, N.C., Feb. 8, 1862, and Fort Donelson, Tenn., surrendered to General Grant Feb. 16, 1862.

These Union victories were repeated in the battles of Pea Ridge, Ark., by Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, March 6-8, 1862, and the battle of New Madrid, Mo., by Gen. John Pope, March 14, 1862. On March 8, 1862, the Confederate ram Virginia (late Merrimac) wrought havoc with the Federal fleet at Hampton Roads, Va., and was herself defeated by the U.S. iron-clad Monitor, March 9, 1862. The Confederate victory at Newbern, N.C., March 14, 1862, was followed by the Federal victories near Winchester, Va., March 23, by Gen. James Shields; at Shiloh, Tenn., by Grant, April 6-7, 1862; the capture of Island No. 10 with 6000 men by Flag-Officer Foote and General Pope, April 7, 1862, and the capture of Fort Pulaski, Ga., by Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, April 10-12, 1862.

On April 24, 1862, the Federal fleet under Flag-Officer Farragut passed Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and on April 25 New Orleans was captured.

On May 5, 1862, General McClellan forced the Confederates to evacuate Williamsburg, Va.; Gen. John E. Wool captured Norfolk, Va., May 10; Hanover court-house, Va., was captured by Gen. Fitz-John Porter, May 27, and on the same day General Beaureguard evacuated Corinth, Miss. In a series of battles, May 27, May 31 and June 23 to July 1, which included Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, McClellan was forced to change his base to the James river, as Gen. T. J. Jackson had marched down the valley and threatened Washington, which prevented the President from carrying out his intention of sending McDowell with his 40,000 men to his support.

On June 3, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee was appointed to the chief command of the Confederate army, and on June 26 he engaged McClellan at Mechanicsville, Va. The ensuing seven days' battles, ending July 1, resulted in McClellan being ordered to evacuate the Peninsula and join Pope's Army of Virginia.

The Confederates were again victorious at Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, 1862, in the battles between Manassas and Washington, D.C., under Pope, Aug. 26 to Sept. 1, 1862, and in the battle of Richmond, Ky., under Kirby Smith, Aug. 30, 1862. In September, 1862, Lee began his invasion of Maryland and crossed the Potomac near Point of Rocks. The President asked McClellan to resume the command of the Army of the Potomac.

On Sept. 15, 1862. Harper's Ferry with 12,000 men was surrendered to Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, and after the battle of Antietam, Md., Sept. 16-17, 1862, Lee retreated toward Richmond

. The Federal army under Rosecrans were victorious at Iuka, Miss., Sept. 19 and at Corinth, Miss., Oct. 3-4, 1862, and the Confederates under Bragg made an unsuccessful attack at Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862.

On Nov. 5, 1862, Gen. G. B. McClellan was removed from command of the Army of the Potomac and General Burnside was appointed in his place. The disasters which befell the army did not end, however, with McClellan's removal, as unexpected defeats were suffered by General Burnside at Fredericksburg, Va., with a loss of 12,000 men, Dec. 11-15, 1862, and by Gen. Joseph Hooker at Chancellorville, Va., May 1-5, 1863, and no positive gains were made in the west.

Meantime the subject of the emancipation of the slaves had engaged the President. On March 6, 1862, he sent to congress a special message recommending the adoption of a joint resolution: "That the United States ought to co-operate with and aid pecuniarily any state adopting gradual abolishment of slavery." This proposition was not cordially received by the border states and made evident the fact that emancipation was not desired. The [p.429] bill was passed, however, and on March 10 the President gathered together some of the border state members and tried to win them over to his views. After two days' consideration the project was given up. On April 2, 1862, congress passed an act emancipating the slaves in the District of Columbia; on May 9, 1862, General Hunter proclaimed martial law in Georgia, Florida and South Carolina, declaring the slaves free, which order the President at once revoked as unauthorized; on June 19, 1862, a bill passed congress prohibiting slavery wherever congress had authority, and on July 17, 1862, a measure "for the confiscation of the property of rebels, and giving freedom to the persons they hold in slavery," after being amended, was passed.

In July, 1862, amendments were made to a bill concerning the calling forth of the militia, permitting the enlistment of negroes in the Union army, and making thereafter free each person so enlisted. This bill aroused much criticism and was finally modified so as to relate only to slaves of rebel owners.

On Sept. 22, 1862, the President issued a preliminary proclamation that unless the in habitants of the revolted states returned to their allegiance by Jan. 1, 1863, the slaves would be declared free; but this proclamation had no effect.

On Jan. 1, 1863, the President issued his emancipation proclamation in which he stated that all persons held as slaves in certain states and parts of states being then in rebellion should be free and that the government would "recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons."

General Lee invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, in June, 1863, and on July 1-3 the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., was fought in which the Federal army under Gen. George G. Meade defeated the Confederates under Lee; on July 4, 1863, Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, and on July 8, Port Hudson, La., surrendered to the Federals under General Banks. Recruits now being needed in numbers far above the enlistments, on May 3, 1863, congress passed a bill making every able-bodied citizen of military age liable for service, a commutation of $300 for exemption being permitted, and on the failure of the citizens to present themselves for enrolment, the President ordered a draft. This led on July 13 to the draft riots in New York city, and soon after the bounty system was substituted. On July 16 Jackson, Miss., was destroyed by General Sherman, and in September Chattanooga, Tenn., was occupied by the Confederates under Gen. George B. Crittendon. The battle of Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19-20, 1863, resulted in a victory for the Confederate General Bragg, and a Federal loss of 16,000 men. Bragg was defeated, however, at the battles of Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, Nov. 23-25, and the siege of Knoxville was raised by Longstreet, Dec. 4, 1863.

In December, 1863, the 13th amendment, providing that slavery should not exist within the United States, was introduced into the house, and in January, 1864, in the senate. On June 15, 1864, the vote was taken but the result being a deficiency of 27 votes the question was laid over till the next session. On Jan. 28, 1865, the vote was retaken and resulted in 119 ayes and 56 nays, and the 13th amendment was adopted. A motion to adjourn in honor of the event was made and carried, and a great popular demonstration followed.

On Feb. 1, 1864, the President and Secretary Seward met on the River Queen a commission sent by President Davis to inquire into the possible adjustment of affairs between the North and South, but the conference broke up without finding any basis for an agreement. The campaign of 1864 opened with General Sherman's raid from Vicksburg, Feb. 14, 1864. On April 18, Fort Pillow was captured by the Confederates and the Negro troops were massacred. On May 5-7, the battles of the Wilderness occurred between Grant and Lee, and Lee was driven back. On May 4 Sherman began his march to Atlanta and the sea with 98,000 men, and on May 10-12 Grant attacked Lee at Spotsylvania court house and defeated him.

On June 8, 1864, Lincoln was unanimously renominated for President, with Andrew Johnson as Vice-President, and he was elected Nov. 8, 1864, receiving 2,216,067 popular votes against 1,808,725 for McClellan, the Democratic nominee. The electoral vote was 212 for Lincoln and 21 for McClellan.

At the battle of Cold Harbor, June 1-3, 1864, and at Petersburg, Va., June 16-18, 1864, General Grant was repulsed by Lee, but he began a siege of Petersburg, June 18.

Sherman meanwhile won the battle of Resaca, Ga., May 13-15, 1864, and the battle of Dallas, Ga., May 25-28, but at Kenesaw Mountain he was repulsed June 27, 1864. On July 22-28 the battles of Atlanta took place, in which Sherman was victorious. On July 30 occurred the explosion of the Petersburg crater and the subsequent repulse of the Federal charge. The principal naval operations of 1864 were the sinking of the C.S. steamer Alabama by the U.S. steamer Keatsarge, off Cherbourg, France, and the battle of Mobile Bay, in which the Federal fleet under Farragut was victorious. Sherman captured Atlanta, Ga., Sept. 2, 1864, Savannah, Ga., Dec. 22, 1864, Columbia, S.C., Feb. 17, 1865, and Bentonville, N.C., March 19, 1865.

General Sheridan won the battle of Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, and the battle of Fisher's Hill, Va., Sept. 22, 1864.

President Lincoln was inaugurated for a second term March 4, 1865, amid popular rejoicing. On April 2 Grant carried the outer lines of the Confederate works at Petersburg, and on April 3 [p.430] Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated by General Lee, who surrendered his army to General Grant at Appomattox court house, Va., April 9, 1865.

The President visited General Grant at his headquarters at City Point and entered Richmond shortly after the evacuation. On April 11, 1865,: Washington was illuminated in honor of the surrender of Lee, and on the evening of April 14, 1865, the President, Mrs. Lincoln, Miss Clara Harris and Major Ruthbone occupied a box at Ford's Theatre, Washington to witness the play "Our American Cousin." At 10:30 in the evening an obscure actor, entered the President's box from the rear of the stage and holding a pistol to the President's head, fired. The President fell forward unconscious, and in the confusion which followed the assassin leaped upon the stage but broke his leg in the leap, his spur being entangled in the American flag that draped the box.

The President was carried to a house opposite the theatre where, on the morning of April 15, 1865, he died. On April 19, 1865, the funeral took place at the White House. The body was laid in state at the White House, and was there viewed by a great number of people. It was guarded by a company of high officers of the army and navy.

The assassin of the President was found in a barn by a squadron of troops April 27, 1865, and was shot by a soldier before the officer could demand his surrender. The remains of the President lay in state in Baltimore, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, New York, Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland and Chicago; and at each place immense funeral processions marched through the streets and the whole country was in mourning. The funeral car reached Springfield, Ill., having travelled a distance of nearly 2000 miles, and the body was buried in Oak Ridge cemetery, May 4, 1865.

A monument of white marble marks the spot. Numerous statues of Lincoln adorn the public places of most of the larger cities of the United States. Henry Kirke Brown executed the one in Union Square, New York city, and that in Brooklyn; Thomas Ball's Emancipation group appears in Lincoln Park, Washington, D.C., and in Park Square, Boston; a statue by Mrs. Vinnie Ream Hoxie is in Statuary Hall in the national capitol, one by Augustus St. Gaudens in Chicago, and one by Randolph Rogers in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia.

The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on Mr. Lincoln by Columbia in 1861, and by the College of New Jersey in 1864.

Portraits in oil were painted from life by Alban J. Conant, Frank B. Carpenter, Matthew Wilson, Thomas Hicks, and William E. Marshall. Mr. Carpenter also painted "The Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation" and wrote: "Six Months in the White House." After his death, Healy, Page and many other painters produced excellent portraits after his numerous photographs.

A large collection of his photographs was reproduced in MeClure's Magazine with an illustrated "Life" and "Early Life of Abraham Lincoln." by Ida M. Tarbell (1895-96); and Yolk and Mills took life masks from which they executed busts.

Mr. Lincoln's "Speech at Cooper Union, Feb. 27, 1860," was issued in pamphlet form and widely circulated, and selections from his speeches and messages were published in 1865. Joseph H. Barrett, J. G. Holland, W. M. Thayer, B. F. Morris, Henry J. Raymond, Ward H. Lamon, W. O. Stoddard, Isaac N. Arnold, Harriet Beecher Stowe, D. W. Bartlett, Charles G. Leland, J. C. Power, Nicolay and Hay, John T. Morse, Carl Schurz, William D. Howells, Ida M. Tarbell are the more prominent of his numerous biographers.

In the selection of names for a place in the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, New York university, made in 1900, his was one of the thirty-seven names in "Class M, Rulers and Statesmen," and received a place, having ninety-six votes, equalling the votes given to Daniel Webster and exceeded only by the ninety-seven votes given to George Washington.

President Lincoln died in Washington. D.C., April 15, 1865. "



The Fort Wayne Lincoln







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